Sheltered Coastal Waters

Habitat characterized by more islets and rocks, sheltered by the outer islets. Waters are more shallow than in the outer coast. Species living in sheltered coastal waters often feed on benthic (sea floor) organisms, depending on depth. Many areas have rich floral communities.

Typical species:

  • Pelagic diving sea birds (Breeding season): If suitable colony location
  • Coastal diving species: Black guillemots may utilize man-made boulder structures if undisturbed. Cormorants and shags. Other specie depending on degree of human disturbance.
  • Pelagic surface feeding sea birds (breeding season): Kittiwakes can utilize suitable breeding sites
  • Coastal surface feeding birds: Gulls, terns, ducks
  • Waders: Oystercatchers are frequent on rocky shores (kelp at low tide). Depending on the habitat available on larger islets, dry-fall areas etc. many other waders may be present.
  • Seals: If undisturbed, seals may utilize sheltered rocks for breeding, resting and moulting.
  • Otters: Foraging in kelp forests and near beaches of various substrates.


Combat strategy:

  • .Upstream combat of threatening slicks is considered the best option, if possible. 
  • Protection of sites that are especially rich in sea birds and marine mammals (seals), is important during oil spill combat. Protection priority should be given to MOB areas. 
  • It is especially important to combat oil threatening islets and areas around “bird cliffs” as well as seal breeding sites (rocky islets).  
  • Local knowledge should be used to identify details of protected areas. 
  • Monitoring the location of sea birds and marine mammals (cetaceans and seals) is important during oil spill combat. 
  • Use of heavy recovery equipment may be navigationally difficult in some areas. 
  • Use of chemical dispersants should be avoided in areas where the potential for dilution is limited. A rule of thumb of at least 200 m from shore and water depths exceeding 20 m has formerly been applied. Application of chemical dispersants is generally not recommended in areas with rich kelp forests.